In May 2015, the Lion census states the population is now 523 individuals.
Gir Forest National Park & Wildlife Sanctuary is a 1412 square km hilly biotope of dry deciduous forests, acacia scrub, evergreen, and semi-evergreen flora and grasslands. It is fed by rivers and streams. Among the many waterbodies in the reserve, one is Kamleshwar Dam which is known for its large Marsh Crocodile population.

Originally it was protected by the Nawab of Junagadh. The British viceroys brought to his attention the plight of the Asiatic Lion and that led to the formation of this reserve for the conservation of Lions and other fauna.
Historically, the Asiatic lion lived in West Asia, South and Central Asia, and Eastern Europe. Now the lions exist in Gir Forest National Park.

In India, Asiatic lion ranged from Bengal to north-west and central India. Hunted by British Officers, the numbers of Lion declined in the country.
The last lion was spotted in 187 near Mount Abu outside the state of Gujarat.